What is bromine?
Bromine is an atomic number 35 chemical element with the symbol Br. It’s the third-lightest halogen, and at room temperature, it’s a fuming red-brown liquid that quickly evaporates to create a similar-colored vapor. It has characteristics that are halfway between chlorine and iodine. Its name was taken from the Ancient Greek o (“stench”), alluding to its harsh and unpleasant scent. It was isolated separately by two chemists, Carl Jacob Löwig (in 1825) and Antoine Jérôme Balard (in 1826).
Bromine is a highly reactive element that only occurs in nature as colorless soluble crystalline mineral halide salts, similar to table salt.The great solubility of the bromide ion (Br) has led its buildup in the seas, despite its rarity in the Earth’s crust. The element is easily mined commercially from brine pools, which are primarily found in the United States, Israel, and China. Bromine makes up roughly one-third of the mass of chlorine in the seas.
It is a liquid at normal temperatures and pressures; the only other element that is liquid at comparable temperatures and pressures is mercury. Organobromine compounds rapidly disintegrate at high temperatures to give free bromine atoms, halting free radical chemical chain reactions.Organobromine compounds are valuable as fire retardants because of this action, and more than half of the bromine generated each year is used for this reason. The same characteristic causes ozone depletion by dissociating volatile organobromine molecules in the atmosphere and releasing free bromine atoms. As a result, several organobromine chemicals are no longer utilized, including the insecticide methyl bromide. Bromine compounds are still employed as an intermediary in the production of organic chemicals, as well as in well drilling fluids and photographic film.
Properties of bromine:
Bromine, a nonmetal in group 17 of the periodic table, is the third halogen. Its characteristics are therefore comparable to fluorine, chlorine, and iodine, and tend to be midway between the two neighboring halogens, chlorine and iodine. Bromine has the electron configuration [Ar]4s23d104p5, with its valence electrons being the seven electrons in the fourth and outermost shell. It has one electron short of a full octet, like other halogens, and is thus a powerful oxidizing agent, interacting with a variety of elements to complete its outer shell.According to periodic trends, it has an electronegativity midway between chlorine and iodine (F: 3.98, Cl: 3.16, Br: 2.96, I: 2.66), and is less reactive than chlorine but more reactive than iodine. It’s likewise a lesser oxidizer than chlorine, although it’s more powerful than iodine. The bromide ion, on the other hand, is a weaker reducing agent than iodide but stronger than chloride.
The stable isotopes of bromine are 79Br and 81Br. The only two natural isotopes are 79Br and 81Br, with 79Br accounting for 51% of natural bromine and 81Br for the remaining 49%. Both have a nuclear spin of 3/2 and can be used for nuclear magnetic resonance, however 81Br is better. The almost equal distribution of the two isotopes in nature aids mass spectroscopy identification of bromine-containing molecules. The other bromine isotopes are all radioactive and have half-lives that are too short to exist naturally. The most notable of these are 80Br (t1/2 = 17.7 min), 80mBr (t1/2 = 4.421 h), and 82Br (t1/2 = 35.28 h), all of which may be made by neutron activation of natural bromine.
Application of bromine:
In industrial, a wide range of organobromine chemicals are utilized. Some are made using bromine, while others are made with hydrogen bromide, which is made by combining hydrogen and bromine.
- Bromine is utilized in a wide range of applications, including agricultural chemicals, dyes, pesticides, medicines, and chemical intermediates. Some usages are being phased out due to environmental concerns, while new ones are being discovered all the time.
- Flame retardants can be made from bromine compounds. They are used to make furniture foam, electronics plastic casings, and fabrics less flammable. Bromine has, however, been phased out as a flame retardant in the United States due to toxicity concerns.
- Halon fire extinguishers, which are used to put out flames in museums, aircraft, and tanks, contain organobromides. In film photography, silver bromide is a chemical.
- Bromine was used to make 1,2-di-bromoethane, an anti-knock agent, before leaded fuels were phased out.
- Poisonous bromomethane was commonly employed as a pesticide in the tenting process to fumigate soil and buildings. Ethylene bromide was utilized in a similar way. All of these volatile organobromine compounds are now classified as ozone depleting substances.Organobromide insecticides are no longer used, according to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, which mandated that they be phased out by 2005. (In housing fumigation, they have been replaced by such compounds as sulfuryl fluoride, which contain neither the chlorine or bromine organics which harm ozone).